The Karlovy Vary Region is located in the westernmost part of Bohemia, making it the westernmost region of the Czech Republic. The region is bordered to the north-east by the Ústí nad Labem Region, to the south-east by the Pilsen Region, to the south-west by the German Federal State of Bavaria and to the north-west by the German Federal State of Saxony. The most important river in the Karlovy Vary Region is the Ohře River.
The Karlovy Vary Region as a higher territorial self-government unit was created in 2000 on the territory of the northern part of the West Bohemian Region. The seat of the Region is Karlovy Vary. It is one of the smallest regions in the Czech Republic in terms of size, number of municipalities and population. Its area (3 314 km²) covers 4.25% of the territory of the Czech Republic. The Karlovy Vary Region is the third smallest region after Prague and the Liberec Region. In terms of population, the Karlovy Vary Region is the smallest region in the Czech Republic, with a population of approximately 293,000.
43.1% of its area is covered by forests. Geomorphologically, the region belongs to the Erzgebirge system of the Bohemian Highlands province, with the areas of the Ore Mountains (Klínovecká Highlands), the Smrčiny Mountains (Ašská Highlands, Hazlovská Highlands and Chebská Highlands), the Chebská Basin, the Sokolovská Basin, the Doupovské Mountains, and the Karlovy Vary Highlands (Slavkovský Forest, Tepelská Highlands and Bezdružická Highlands). The Ohře River flows through the region from west to east and drains most of the region. It has very clean water.
The highest point of the territory is the peak of the Ore Mountains, Klínovec 1 244 m above sea level in the Karlovy Vary district, the lowest is the level of the Ohře River 320 m above sea level in Boca, Karlovy Vary district. The climate of the Karlovy Vary Region is characterised by a moderately warm area and a cold area on the ridges of the Ore Mountains.